Korea attempted rapid economic development, and serious environmental problems emerged in the process of economic development. Much financial investment was needed to solve the problem of environmental pollutions such as air pollution, water pollution, waste and so forth, however, related financial source was not enough. Therefore, various environmental charging systems were introduced based on the principle of charging on polluters and benefiters being conducted in advanced nations and necessary financial sources were prepared to improve the environment and invest in the basic environmental facilities. It is evaluated to be very successful systems.
In Korea, for various environmental mediums such as air, water, waste and so forth, 23 environmental charging systems are introduced and operated. As shown in Table 2, Korea’s major environmental charging systems are evaluated in the aspect of charging principle, originality of the system, effect of environmental improvement, function of financial supply and the success of system operation and the possibility of application to developing nations will be sought. As a result of evaluation, emission charging system (air, water quality), environmental improvement charging system, EPR system appeared to be applicable to developing nations. Water use charge appeared to be at medium level and water quality improvement charge, waste charge and ecosystem preservation cooperation charge appeared to be low. Water use charge is an advanced nation type political tool that applies the principle of charging on benefiters. In case of Korea, it has been established as a unique system through many improvements and is considered to be a successful policy. It is evaluated as a good governance case that solved the conflicts between upper and lower classes through conversation and negotiation, but it is considered to be too fast to encourage its introduction considering the current economic conditions and developmental levels of the developing nations.
be Introduced to Developing Nations
|Emission Charging System (Air, Water Quality)||○||○||○||△||○||High|
|Environmental Improvement Charging System||○||○||○||○||○||High|
|Water Use Charge||○||○||○||○||○||Medium|
|Water Quality Improvement Charge||○||X||△||○||○||Low|
|Ecosystem Preservation Cooperation Charge||○||X||X||○||○||Low|
① Charging principle: Mark ○ if it is relevant
② System originality: Mark ○ if there is system originality in Korea and mark X if there is no originality.
③ Effect of environmental improvement: Large effect (○), limited effect (△), little or no effect (X)
④ Function of financial supply: Large effect (○), limited effect (△), little or no effect (X)
⑤ Success of system operation: Mark ○ if system operation is successful in Korea and mark X if it is not successful.
⑥ Possibility to be introduced to developing nations: Mark as high, medium and low
As for the environmental charging systems applicable to developing nations, emission charging system, environmental improvement charging system and extended producer responsibility (EPR) system were considered. The major characteristics of the emission charging system (air, water quality), environmental improvement charging system and EPR system selected by evaluating the emission charging system, environmental improvement system and EPR system used in Korea can be summarized as follows in Table 3. First of all, emission charging system is applied to air and water quality in order to improve the quality of air and water and is operated by the principle of charging on polluters. In the environment improvement charging system, charges are also imposed for air and water pollutants. However, the purpose of the policy is to reduce the amount of air and water pollutants generated by diesel vehicles and facilities. In the extended producer responsibility (EPR), recycle charges are imposed for wastes and it is introduced to encourage the recycling of wastes by producers.
|Policy Goal||Charging Principle||Use of Financial|
System (Air, Water Quality)
|(Air, Water Quality)||Reduction of air and water pollutants from manufacturing industry||Principle of charging on polluters||Support the investment cost in prevention facility|
|(Air, Water Quality)||Reduction of air and water pollutants from diesel vehicles and facilities||Principle of charging on polluters||Make financial resource for environmental investment|
|EPR System||Waste||Enhance the waste recycling rate by producers||Principle of charging on polluters||Support the project of waste recycling|