Sub-Theme 4 | Implication for Developing Countries
After the Korean War in 1950, key allies including UNESCO and the U.S. helped to restore Korea's education through emergency aid from the international community. In this respect, this report intends to review the restoration activities of UNESCO in the wake of the war to understand a recipient country's positions getting educational support from the international community and consider how we should approach to the international development cooperation project in the education sector.
Korea's compulsory elementary education in 1950s can be said as a semi-government compulsory education, in which the government provided the school facilities and equipment through the national budget and parents supported education through high education zeal. In this respect, Korea's compulsory elementary education was not exactly free but was implemented by transferring the burden of education expenses to parents and local communities. With this regard, Korea's experience can offer some meaningful implication to developing countries which are pursuing compulsory elementary education as they are reeling from the aftermath of disasters or conflicts.
The followings are added proposals concerning Korea's completion of compulsory elementary education after the war.
First, it should operate a transparent student selection and admission system and give motivation to students. In the case of underdeveloped countries, the lack of transparency in student selection for admission to secondary education and the widespread political connections after graduation serve as a tumbling block to offer motivation for study. In contrast, Korea's general transparent student selection system and open competition in the job market eventually raised students' motivation for learning. A transparent operation of selection system in a society is crucial in giving motivation for study to students and parents.
Second, there should be various educational opportunities for school drop-outs or those who quit school. Korea also had a low advancement rate to the middle school right after the war and there were many elementary school graduates who had to give up on advancement to the higher school due to difficult financial situations. The Korean government established and operated various programs for them in an effort to motivate them for study. The cases in points are broadcasting middle and highs school, higher civic schools, the school qualification examination system, etc.
Third, Korean education has achieved remarkable success but still has some tasks to be resolved. Both the success and problems were stemmed from the education development process we have chosen. When providing Korea's experience in the development of compulsory elementary education, the following items should be carefully discussed.
(1) Diversification challenges within the educational universalization
(2) Harmony between the centralized education operation and schools
(3) Relationships and role sharing among the central government, local government and schools
Implication for Developing Countries
|Subject||Social Development < Education|