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Small-scale Sewerage System in Rural Area

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Small-scale Sewerage System in Rural Area06



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Title Small-scale Sewerage System in Rural Area
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Material Type Report
Date 2019-12
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Territorial Development < Environment
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Abstract

Sub-Theme 4 | Small-scale Sewerage System in Rural Area



 



 



Sewerage is usually considered an urban infrastructure, and the government started to reorganize sewerage with the construction of sewage treatment plants in urban areas in the 1980s. However, as standards of living improved, stock farmers increased and flush toilets propagated with the supply of waterworks in rural areas, the pollution load greatly increased. Water became polluted, securing good water resources became a difficult task and bad smells and flies were present, and all of these issues greatly threatened the living environment in rural areas. To prevent the pollution of public waters and to contribute to the sound development and improvement of public health in rural areas by ensuring a sound environment, the Korean government began supplying village sewerage and small-scale sewage treatment facilities (hereinafter small sewerage system), which had previously only been found in large cities. The small-scale sewerage project started with adding village sewage treatment facilities to the redevelopment planning in rural farm areas that had been run since 1976 and constructing 91 village sewerages on a trial basis from 1991 to 1994. Then, to resolve the depressed atmosphere of rural villages that had been caused by the result of Uruguay Round Negotiations, the government planned political investment, and based on a special tax for rural areas for investment in rural villages that was established in 1995, started to drive the project. ##3D_LAYER##In the agricultural special tax project, based on the program to improve rural living conditions, the sewerage project focused on myeon or village and was run for 10 years from 1995 to 2004.##3D_TEXT:Korea water & wastewater works association(1998)##3D_LAYER_END##



 





1. Definition





Under the 4th clause of article 2 in the Sewerage Law, a small sewerage system is defined as a public sewage treatment facility with a sewage treatment capacity of less than 500m3/d. Before the Sewerage Law was revised in September 2007 (Promulgation on Sep 27, 2006. Enforcement on Sep 28, 2007), small sewage systems had been called village sewage facilities. Small sewage treatment facilities with a capacity of less than 50 tons a day that had been illegal facilities and installed according to the Act on Rearrangement of Rural Villages and Act on the Promotion of Amelioration of Housing in Rural villages were renamed village sewerages and became legal facilities in 1996. Since 2010, these have been managed as public sewerages under the Sewerage Law.



 



 



##3D_LAYER##[Figure 1. Classification of the public sewerage]##3D_TEXT:Lee Ho-sik(2008) “Current status and improvement of small-scale plants”, Journal of Environmental Hi-technology##3D_LAYER_END##





 



2. Operation management system





In the early stage, the village sewerage project was implemented without a specific standard for facilities or method of management, according to the direction of government departments such as the Ministry of Home Affairs, the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and the Ministry of Environment. The Ministry of Home Affairs, based on the Act on the Promotion of Amelioration of Housing in Rural Villages and A Guideline for Agricultural Special Tax projects, ran a small-scale sewerage project, and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry ran the project as part of the culture village creation project based on the Act on the Rearrangement of Rural Villages and the Act on the Special Measures for the Development of Rural Villages.





The Ministry of Environment ran a small-scale sewerage project focused on Myeon unit in accordance with the guideline for the Sewerage Law and the agricultural special tax project. In December 1997, with the aim of improving the efficiency of business consultation, project promotion and management among the three departments, the 'integrated guidelines for village sewerage project' was established to define project planning, implementing running, managing, etc, related to the village sewerage.





Based on that guideline, village sewerages would be independently constructed by government departments, but their management after completion was unified under the Ministry of Environment. However, the support project of the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs (Ministry of Home Affairs) was unified under the Ministry of Environment in accordance with a measure on the division of roles for finance support project for rural areas in 2006, and a project for constructing the village sewerage in rural areas began to be operated based on environmental improvement special accounts in 2007. Thus, according to the integrated guideline for small-scale sewerage projects established in 2007, based on the Act on the Promotion of Amelioration of Housing in Rural Villages, the project for improvement of the rural housing environment of the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs was transferred to the Ministry of Environment. Currently, small-scale sewerage projects are run by the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry.



 



 



##3D_LAYER##[Table 7 Promotion, management and relevant authorities for small-scale sewerage projects]##3D_TEXT:Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry∙Ministry of Environment(2007), Integrated guideline for small scale sewerage projects, Sewerage Division of the Ministry of Environment, No.3437(2007.11.15)##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/%EC%86%8C%EA%B7%9C%EB%AA%A8-%ED%95%98%EC%88%98%EB%8F%84%EC%82%AC%EC%97%85-%ED%86%B5%ED%95%A9%EC%A7%80%EC%B9%A8--99202001140152479.do##3D_LAYER_END##



 
























































Division Name of the project Project to improve the rural housing environment Project to improve the rural living environment Sewerage project
Existing Relevant authority Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs Ministry of Environment
Applicable Act Rearrangement of Rural Villages Act Act on the Promotion of Amelioration of Housing in Rural Villages Sewerage Law
Details of the project - Implementing the projects to rearrange an existing or a new village in order to improve the rural living environment - Implementing the projects to improve living environment after designating rural environment improvement area focused on natural village

- Implementing a project of constructing small-scale public sewerage facilities for final treatment of wastewater produced in rural areas



 



- Implementing a project of small-scale public sewerage according to the Act on the Promotion of Amelioration of Housing in Rural Villages


Details of the village sewerage project - Implemented as part of a project to improve the rural living environment. Facilities with a capacity range of 50 ~ 500 tons/day - Implemented as part of a project to improve the rural residential environment. Facilities with a capacity range of 50 ~ 500 tons/day - Implemented as part of a project to improve water quality. Facilities with a capacity range of 50 ~ 500 tons/day
Since 2007 Relevant authority Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Ministry of Environment
Applicable Act Rearrangement of Rural Villages Act Sewerage Law
Details of the project - Implementing the projects to rearrange existing or new villages in order to improve the rural living environment

- Implementing a project to construct small-scale public sewerage facilities for final treatment of wastewater produced in rural areas



 



- Implementing a project of small-scale public sewerage according to the Act on the Promotion of Amelioration of Housing in Rural Villages



 




 



The small-scale sewage treatment facilities are divided into facilities managed by a private company on commission and those directly managed by the relevant department in the local government. shows that compares the merits and demerits of privately commissioned management and direct management by local government. The merits of privately commissioned management are that it enables cost reduction and greater operating efficiency by introducing an effective operational method and flexibility of operation organization. However, due to the private sector's pursuit of profit, low-grade engineers with low labor costs might be supplied, which might result in poor management of facilities and reduced treatment efficiency. For this reason, solving the working personnel problem is the most significant issue for the existing facilities.



 



 



##3D_LAYER##[Table 8. A comparative chart of the merits and demerits of public/private sector]##3D_TEXT:Choi Yongcheol(2003) “Current status and tasks of sewerage entrustment”, Journal of Environmental Hi-Technology##3D_LAYER_END##



 























Division Direct management by local government Privately commissioned management
Merits

- No concern about cessation of work due to bankruptcy or walkout



 



- Since their purpose is not to make profit, facility maintenance will be properly performed. Contributes to water quality control by adjusting the water quality as low as possible. 



 



- If existing employees continue to work, there will be no personnel problems as facility maintenance becomes available.



- Securing cost reduction and operational efficiency by introducing efficient operation methods and organizational flexibility. 



 



- In the event of improper operation, sanctions could be applied by local government in its supervisory capacity.



 



- Private company's laborers are available to repair facilities.



 



- Promoting integrated management on environmental foundation facilities



 


Demerits

- Frequent reshuffling could result in a lack of specialization and responsibility.



 



- .Separate operation of environmental foundation facilities could cause excessive operation cost. 



 



- Simultaneously acting as operator and director could result in a decline in function of superintendent.



 



- Window dressing could result in excessive administrative costs and the organization's rigidity could reduce operational efficiency



- There is concern about cessation of work due to bankruptcy or walkout.



 



- Due to the pursuit of profit, less qualified engineers with low labor costs might be supplied, which might result in poor management and reduced treatment efficiency. 



 



- Concerns about repair costs being passed on from commissioned company to local government.



 



- If a small company is selected, it may have poor operation and management.



 



- For existing facilities, there will be difficulty solving the surplus personnel problem. 




 



 



3. Financial support





To finance village sewerage projects, the Korean government used a special tax for rural development and the agricultural structure improvement special account (national treasury) and promoted a program to improve rural living conditions. The Ministry of Environment would provide 70% of project costs as a local transfer fund from the special tax for rural development, while the Ministry of Home Affairs would fully fund some projects through a local transfer fund from the special tax for rural development, and after 1996 would support 80% of project cost. The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry would fully fund certain projects from the agricultural structure improvement special account (national treasury).





With the abolition of the local transfer fund, the financing for sewerage projects is currently composed of the environmental improvement special account, the balanced national development special account and the agricultural structure improvement special account. Also, sewerage projects focused on the Myeon, which from 1995 to 2004 were run with part of the special tax for rural development as a local transfer fund, were changed to a special account subsidy program of the special tax management for rural areas in 2005 due to the abolition of local transfer fund, and were changed again to the agricultural structure improvement special account in 2007.



 



 



##3D_LAYER##[Table 9. Financing system for rural sewerage project]##3D_TEXT:Ministry of Environment(2010) Three decades of environmental policies in Korea##3D_LAYER_END##



 


























  Ministry of Environment Ministry of Public Administration and Security Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
Finance

‘1995~’2004 : Special tax for rural development (Local transfer fund)





‘2005~’2006 : Special account subsidy program of the special tax management for rural areas





‘2007~ : Special account for environmental improvement and special account for the balanced national development (Construction of sewerage in rural area)





Agricultural structure improvement special account (Sewerage treatment facilities focused on Myeon)



‘1995~’2004 : Special tax for rural development (Local transfer fund)





‘2005~’2006 : Special account subsidy program of the special tax management for rural areas





‘2007~ : Ministry of Environment



‘1995~’2004 : Agricultural structure improvement special account (National funds)





‘2005~’2009 : Special account for balanced national development





‘2010~ : Special account for the regional development


Project cost suppor 70% Total project cost → 80%(‘1996) →Ministry of Environment

(’2007)
Total project cost (special account)→80% (special account) → 70% (special account)


 



 



4. Treatment technology and water quality standard





Unlike medium and large-scale public facilities, various treatment methods have been applied to the small sewage treatment facilities in the rural communities. These can be roughly divided into the Suspended growth method, SBR(Sequencing batch reactor), Attached  growth  method and Soil treatment method. The Suspended growth method includes Activated sludge process, Extended aeration and Oxidation ditch method. On the other hand, the Attached growth method includes Rotating biological contactor, Contact oxidation method and Trickling filter process. ##3D_LAYER##Finally, Contact oxidation method topped soil and Capillary permeation trench method are included in the Soil treatment method.##3D_TEXT:National Institute of Environmental Research(2001) A study on the systematic construction of small scale sewage treatment facilities(I)##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/%EB%A7%88%EC%9D%84%ED%95%98%EC%88%98-%EC%B2%98%EB%A6%AC%EC%8B%9C%EC%8A%A4%ED%85%9C-%EA%B5%AC%EC%B6%95%EC%97%90-%EC%97%B0%EA%B5%AC-i--99201912270152462.do##3D_LAYER_END##





Through an amendment of the Sewerage Act (Nov. 13. 2008), the water quality standard of effluence of public sewage treatment facilities was divided into two standards for two categories: sewage treatment capacity above and sewage treatment capacity below 50 tons per day, and 6 water quality constituents are regulated separately as of Jan. 1, 2009. Furthermore, ecotoxicity has been included in the water quality constituents since 2011.



 



 



##3D_LAYER##[Table 10. Water quality standard]##3D_TEXT:Sewerage Act, Ministry of Government Legislation##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/%ED%95%98%EC%88%98%EB%8F%84%EB%B2%95--99202001140152480.do##3D_LAYER_END##



 




































Classification BOD (mg/L) CODMn (mg/L) SS (mg/L) TN1 (mg/L) TP2 (mg/L) Coliform count (#/mL) Ecotoxicity3 (TU)
Sewage treatment capacity more than 50 tons/d less than 10 less than 40 less than 10 less than 20 less than 2 less than 3,000

(less than 1,000)
less than 1
Sewage treatment capacity more than 50 tons/d less than 10 less than 40 less than 10 less than 40 less than 4





 



※ 1, 2: the effluence water quality standard of T-N and T-P are less than 60mg/L and 8mg/L each in winter season(applied from Dec. 1st to Mar. 31st)

※ 3: applied from 2011 



 



 



5. Coverage Rate of Sewerage service

 

As most of the Sewerage construction projects prioritized efficiency of facility capacity and the city area before any other aspects, rural areas have been excluded from receiving the benefits of sewerage service since the projects have mostly been large-scale public sewage treatment facility constructions. But the project to boost farmers' incomes through farming improvement and the green revolution, part of the Saemaeul Movement promoted in 1971, caused an increase of contaminant discharge and water pollution due to the increased use of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals. This raised the issue of fundamental water improvement as a necessary means of protection of the water supply source. To solve this problem, the government has promoted the distribution of village sewerage systems in rural areas by investing political sources of revenue such as a Special Rural Development Tax, Rural Structure Improvement Special Account, Environmental Improvement Special Account and Regional/Local Development Special Account.





As seen in [Table 11], the sewage system has been continuously distributed and the coverage rate of sewerage service reached 93.6% in 2017. There is still, however, the service gap between urban(96.1%) and rural(70.0%) areas. The government has been consistently investing every year to narrow disparity in the sewerage service rate in rural area.



 



 



##3D_LAYER##[Table 11. Coverage rate of sewerage service]##3D_TEXT:Ministry of Environment (2007~2017), Statistical data of sewerage.##3D_LAYER_END##



 












































Category 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017
Nationwide 87.1 89.4 90.9 92.1 92.9 93.6
Urban 91.5 93.4 94.2 94.9 95.1 96.1
Rural 45.7 52.0 59.5 63.7 67.1 70.0