Sub-Theme 1 l Advancement and Main Features of Korea's E-Government
With strong governance and leadership along with strategic plans and effective allocation of financial resources, Korea initiated both back-office and front-office applications of ICT for E-Governments in a balanced way. There have been many Korean E-Government systems in the areas of G2G, G2B, and G4C which have been internationally recognized for their quality.
They include the Online Administrative System (On-Nara System), the Korean Immigration Service System (KISS)
, the Korean National E-Procurement System (KONEPS)
, the Home Tax System (HTS)
, Korea’s National Paperless Trade Platform (uTradeHub), the Korean Patent Online System (KIPOnet)
, and the Custom Service System (UNIPASS)
among others. Many of those E-Government systems have been adopted by developing countries as noted in Figure 1.
Korea’s E-Government systems were originally outlined and planned by the special committee on E-Government at the very early stages of E-Government in the early 2000s (Table 3). This section highlights examples of E-Government systems for G2G, G2B, and G4C along with a recent open government initiative. As to the stages of E-Government development
, Korea has progressed from the first stage (one-way communication stage) to the last stage (seamless stage) of E-Government. For example, the Korean government, which ranked first in the 2014 united nations E-Government survey, established the social welfare integrated management network system to improve the efficiency and quality of its social security administration by seamlessly integrating 16 social welfare service institutions and 17 other public agencies. This system allows the government to prevent duplicate benefit payments, fraud, and incorrect payments, as well as to effectively manage eligibility and benefit history information by integrating 31 different kinds of public information, including residency, land, finance, tax, and welfare.
[Table 3. Eleven Major E-Government Projects led by Special Committee on E-Government]
| G4C and G2B
|| Online Portal Services for Citizens (G4C)
- Establishment of government DB-based information sharing such as citizen and car
- Establishment of Minwon 24 Portal
| Four major social insurance information systems
| Integrated e-Procurement System
| Integrated Home Tax System
- Establishment of Internet-based tax administration
| G2G for Improving
| National Finance Information System
| Integrated Local Government Information Network System
| Education Information System
- Online information system linking schools, local education agencies and MEHR
| Personnel Policy Support System
- Establishment of paperless personnel administration and personnel DB
| E-reporting and Digital Document System
- Digitization of government documents and establishment of E-Document System
| E-Government Infrastructure
|| Government PKI Infrastructure and E-Signature
- Government PKI and E-Signature system for all agencies
| Government Integrated Computer Center
- Integrating computer systems operated by various agencies
Source: Chung (2015) p. 122.
Development of E-Government System
1. Government to Government (G2G)
The On-Nara system
is an exemplary case of G2G. It is an administrative task management system for the central government of Korea. The system was designed to improve old bureaucratic culture and working processes by enhancing the level of transparency and accountability. It was originally developed as the “Easy-one System” by the central government in 2004 then developed into the “Hamoni System” by the Ministry of Government Administration and Home Affairs in 2005. One of the primary features of the On-Nara system is the task planning system based on the Business Reference Model (BRM) and document function
, which enables individual government officials to handle daily administrative tasks on the system. In addition, a decision-making/reporting system, and information sharing and organizational learning system are also embedded in the On-Nara system. This allows for documentation and tracking of the history of a particular document from the creation stage to the finalization stage. The system is also designed to facilitate task management and document management using task cards and document cards.
2. Government to Business (G2B)
Korea’s Online E-Procurement System (KONEPS)
is an exemplary G2B system. Before KONEPS was introduced, Korea utilized conventional electronic procurement systems. For example, the Electronic Public Procurement System (PPS) first started in 1997 with the Electronic Data Interchange System. In 1998, PPS was expanded as a way to establish online shopping malls. And this PPS was further advanced to launch electronic bidding and electronic payment systems in 2000 and 2001, respectively. KONEPS was introduced in 2002 as an integrated single window for the online E-Procurement system and provides government organizations and private firms with a cyber space in which they engage electronically in every procurement-related process. KONEPS serves as a single procurement window for public organizations to conduct transactions with private enterprises. All bidding information is accessible via KONEPS, and one-time registration through that portal is all that is needed for suppliers to participate in the bidding. Since KONEPS was launched, the entire procurement process has become more organized and systemized.
3. Government for Citizens (G4C)
The third successful example of E-Government in Korea is Government for Citizens (G4C), which was called the G4C system but changed its name to the Online Civil Appeal System (Minwon 24)
It was introduced as a public sector reform by the OECD
. The G4C system enables citizens to access various public services online based on e-authentication, E-Document, and E-Payment. For example, citizens can print out a copy of their residence certificate using a home printer. In the process of implementing the G4C system, the government updated the legal structures to allow electronic service delivery as a legitimate document. Recently, E-Government has continued to evolve into a more citizen-centric and participative forum in the social media environment where improved interactive capabilities of technologies and evolving citizen and stakeholder expectations for greater interaction, collaboration, and coordination are found.