Construction and Utilization of National Transport Database in Korea
Sub-Theme 1 | National Transport Survey and DB Construction Project: Background
Many countries establish and evaluate long-terms plan on comprehensive, medium- and long-term transport policies and investment. Korea also establishes and evaluates a variety of comprehensive transport plans, including 20-year national backbone transport network plan, 20-year national railway network plan, validity evaluation of transport infrastructure projects that is performed every 5 years and so forth. Measures like the transport apportionment rate, one of the most important policy objectives in comprehensive plans, are the most fundamental and important measures. Besides, transport sector’s energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission, mileage, etc. need for sustainable transport distribution policy against recent climate change, are also indispensable fundamental data.
The Korean government experienced the deterioration of reliability in policy due to absence and/or lack of fundamental data needed for effective establishment of transport policies, thereby appreciating the importance of measures against these problems. In other words, the lack of collecting and reprocessing data fully conforming with the aim of use results in the insufficiency of data that can be directly utilized for primary policy objectives, such as establishment of actual policies and plans, demand prediction, validity evaluation, etc. In particular, the lack of fundamental data was appreciated in regards to intermodalism policies, redundant inter-means investment, sustainable transport distribution policies and so forth.
Also in regards to transport price policy, the Korean government continuously suffered from the problems associated with the underpricing for the use of transport infrastructure, since social cost was not considered in the investment and operation of transport infrastructure. As the approach to determine investment on transport infrastructure via evaluating efficiency of different means in large-scale transport infrastructure investment policy gained more and more attention, the need for related costs was brought up. As a consequence, problems related to the absence of the statistics on the transport external cost, such as congestion fee and accident fee, were raised.
The Korean government diagnosed that although it is making tremendous investment for expansion of transport infrastructure, there exist inefficient investment due to the lack of transport-related fundamental data required for validity and effect analysis of various transport policy and investment projects. The O/D transport volume, network for transport analysis, traffic fact data, etc. are the most fundamental data to verify the validity of transport infrastructure investment. However, the Korean government predicted that problems with the absence of transport DB could be overcome by securing the reliability of data and by utilizing standardized DB, since methods and time of preparation of the surveys to collect and analyze these data were different depending on the institutions, sectors, and projects. In particular, transport-related data suffered from lack of periodic continuity, because they were conducted as one-shot surveys and were disposed after a single use. In addition, consistent, national time series survey data could not be arranged. Therefore, it was decided that the basis for government-driven management of the transport DB across the nation must be set up.
Accordingly, the Korean government started a project for implementing transport DB in 1998, via conducting transport survey at the national level and collecting fundamental transport data. At the same time, it legislated the Transport System Efficiency Act (currently the Integrated Transport System Efficiency Act) in February 1992 and enforced it in August 1992, to conduct transport survey continuously and implement DB, thereby arranging a basis for utilizing DB for evaluation of investment projects, etc.