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Development
Overview

Overview by Subjects

Korea’s economic success has often been called a ‘miracle’. There has been an ongoing debate about the factors behind its success, which has attracted the interest of not only academicians but also policy practitioners. Korea’s experience holds relevance for partner countries that want to catch up with advanced economies in a short period of time as Korea did.


Agriculture
Dominance of the primary sector
Economy
Accession to the OECD Asian Financial Crisis Bilateral economic relations with China Bilateral economic relations with EU Bilateral economic relations with Japan Bilateral economic relations with US Capital market liberalization Development cooperation Early evolution of international economic policy Economic policies Establishing market economy Exchange rate Export promotion and government-led industrialization Financial liberalization Financial market policies Financial opening Financial repression Financial sector reform Foreign aid and economic reconstruction Foreign exchange liberalization Global financial crisis Increased government spending Inward FDI Large increase in foreign borrowing Liberation and state-building Macroeconomic policy response Macroeconomic stabilization Outward direct investment Price controls Private property ownership Regional cooperation Rehabilitating financial health Stabilization and liberalization
Education
Demand-centered education system Education and industrialization Education reform Establishing education infrastructure
Energy and Environment
Environmental protection Expansion of maritime activities Green growth Improvements in living conditions Restrictions on land use Upgrading urban living conditions
Government and Law
General
Broad overview of US aid in Korea Decline in public and commercial loans during the 1980s and 1990s Development cooperation and Korea’s transformation into a donor country Foreign capital inflows into Korea (1980~1997) Foreign debt crisis in the early 1980s History of Korea’s ODA and KOICA International settings for development cooperation and Korea KOICA’s Advancement Overview of official foreign assistance for Korea: 1960-79 Overview of official foreign assistance for and by Korea: 1945-2010 Overview of official foreign assistance: 1945-49 Overview of official foreign assistance: 1950-60 Overview of official foreign assistance: 1980-99 Overview of official foreign assistance: 1999-2010 Overview of the Korean economy in the 1980s and 1990s Overview: 1960~1979 Overview: 1980~1997 The ROK as an aid recipient country The establishment and development of KOICA The role of foreign capital in Korea’s economic development The start of economic development and investment of foreign capital policies
Government and Law
Economic Infrastructure
Aid for industry and energy Aid for information communication technology Construction of the Gyeongbu national expressway Development aid in the early part of the decades of development Development aid in the latter part of the decades of development Electricity and communications Foreign aid for postwar rehabilitation and economic reconstruction Project and sector investments for economic and social development
Government and Law
Governance
Birth of corruption and countermeasures Early awareness of corruption Invigoration of the preventive approach to corruption Local administration: Phase 2 Local finance 1 Local finance 2 Local finance 3 Local finance 4 Local government: Phase 1 Local government: Phase 3 Local government: Phase 4 Rise in efforts for preventing corruption
Government and Law
International Politics
Foreign policy 1 Foreign policy 2 Foreign policy 3
Government and Law
Laws and Legislation
Legal administration 1 Legal administration 2 Legal administration 3
Government and Law
Multi-Sector
Advanced industrialization and acceleration of foreign borrowing, 1973 to 1978 Major cases of international aid Promotion of the strategic export industries and selective foreign borrowing, 1966 to 1972 Public loan projects Structural improvements and selective foreign borrowing, 1986 to 1992
Government and Law
National security
Defense policy: Reinforcing the defense system National defense policy: Achieving greater self-sufficiency in national defense National defense policy: Pursuing greater self-sufficiency in national defense Security and diplomacy strategies 1 Security and diplomacy strategies 2
Government and Law
Political Systems
Government establishment and the Rhee Syngman administration May 16 military coup d’etat and the Park Chunghee administration Military government under President Chun Doohwan U.S. Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK)
Government and Law
Production
Aid for rural development Aid in the USAMGIK period Aid received for agriculture EDCF loans: Distribution by Agricultural, Forestry and Environment Emergency relief and reconstruction assistance Establishment of POSCO Investment for economic reconstruction and stabilization
Government and Law
Public Administration
Administration of government employees’ education and training(1949 to 1961) Administration of government employees’ education and training(1961 to 1972) Administration of government employees’ education and training(from 1973 to the present) Administrative reforms 1 Administrative reforms 2 Administrative reforms 3 Administrative reforms 4 Aid for governance Budget 1 Budget 2 Budget 3 Budget 4 Budget system 1 Budget system 2 Budget system 3 Budget system 4 Capacity building and military assistance Economic stability and diversification of foreign borrowing, 1979 to 1985 Electronic government 1 Electronic government 2 Electronic procurement administration Government accounting system 1 Government accounting system 2 Government accounting system 3 Hiring system 1 Hiring system 2 Hiring system 3 Hiring system 4 Improving office management and introducing the public service information system International development exchange program (IDEP) KOICA’s activities Office automation Office automation: beginning Opening the public procurement market Organization for legislative administration Organization for the Management of State Affairs Organization for the management of state affairs Procurement administration Public administration Public personnel administration 1 Public personnel administration 2 Public personnel administration 3 Public personnel administration 4 Public procurement service Regulatory reforms 1 Regulatory reforms 2 Regulatory reforms 3 Regulatory reforms 4 Tax administration 1 Tax administration 2 Tax administration 3 Tax administration 4
Government and Law
Public Safety
Public safety administration 1 Public safety administration 2 Public safety administration 3 Public safety administration 4
Government and Law
Social Infrastructure
Aid for Health Aid for education Aid received for technical assistance Aid received for vocational training Capacity building and technical assistance in education Capacity building and technical assistance in higher education Establishment of Kumoh technical high school Establishment of the Korea Institute of Science and Technology Establishment of the Korea medical center Investments in education Investments in infrastructure Medical and social services National medical center under UNKRA Start of educational revolution Technical assistance for vocational training from Germany
Government and Law
Others
Aid for environment Characteristics of KOICA assistance and delivery structure Institutional improvement International development cooperation and partnership building Public engagement Strengthening external relationship and harmonization
Health and Safety
Basic health care infrastructure Growth in health care services Post-1995 health policies Pre-1961 health policy
Industry, Service and Trade
Agricultural import liberalization Competition policy and chaebol policy Components of growth Corporate sector reform DDA negotiations Economic liberalization Export promotion FDI policy FTA Policy GATT WTO policy Globalization of Korean economy Government-led industrialization Graduation from GATT XVIII:B Growth of other sectors Growth of the manufacturing sector HCI investment coordination Import liberalization Import liberalization through FTAs Industrial rationalization Korea-Chile FTA Korea-US FTA Liberalization in Educational services Liberalization in tourism services Market opening Promoting heavy and chemical industries Rapid changes in industrial structure Rapid export expansion Resource reallocation Rice negotiations Trade and exchange rate policies Trade and exchange rate policy Trade friction with US Uruguay Round Uruguay Round Agriculture Agreement
Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
Development of ICT industries
Labor
Employment expansion in service sector First turning point Increasing professionals and clerical occupations Institutionalization of women's policies Labor market flexibility Labor market reform Labor movement Minimum wage Non-standard workers and self-employment Part-time workers Second turning point Third turning point Working hours
Population and Demography
Migrant workers Population during period of turmoil Population during pre-liberation period Precipitous decline in fertility Stagnant population growth
Science and Technology
New growth engines Technology development
Social Development
Challenges in social security system Early welfare programs Expansion of opportunities G20 Seoul Summit Increased labor force participation Low priority on welfare programs Post-war policies, Foreign aid and economic reconstruction Seoul Olympics Social welfare gains attention Social welfare reaches maturity
Territorial Development and Urbanization
Agrarian land reform Attempts to curb growth in Seoul Comprehensive real estate measures Development of industrial parks Improving regional competitiveness Large-scale reclamation projects Post-war reconstruction Promoting balanced regional growth Relaxation of land use regulation Renewing balanced regional development Saemaul movement, Reforestation Southeast Coastal Industrial Belt
Transportation
Expansion of transportation networks Infrastructure expansion Infrastructure projects and decentralization Logistics hub for Northeast Asia National transportation networks Stabilizing real estate prices
Others
Public sector reform
Source
  • - The Committee for the Sixty-Year History of the Korean Economy. 2010. The Korean Economy: Six Decades of Growth and Development. The Committee for the Sixty-Year History of the Korean Economy, Edited by SaKong, Il & Koh, Youngdun. Korea: Korea Development Institute
  • - Korea Institute of Public Administration. 2008. Korean Public Administration, 1948-2008, Edited by Korea Institute of Public Administration. Pajubookcity: Bobmunsa.
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