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Capacity building and technical assistance in higher education

Capacity Building and Technical Assistance in Higher Education
Before Korea’s liberation, access to higher education remained largely limited. Imperial University, which would eventually be reorganized into SNU, was established by the Japanese. Enrollment at Imperial University during Japanese rule was very selective and limited to a small percentage of Koreans.30 After Korea’s liberation, a number of national and provincial universities and colleges were established. Most of the increase came from the rapid growth of private, degree-granting colleges. By 1952, the number of higher learning institutions totaled 42 and the number of student enrollment totaled 33,542 (3,958 women).3131 Despite the expansion of higher learning, Korea’s university system was in need of urgent reform to improve the quality rather than quantity of education. Moreover, Korea suffered a huge deficit in the number of skilled workers and technicians after the departure of the Japanese which held most to the skilled jobs during their occupation. As such, top priority was put on upgrading Korean higher education and research, and secondary and vocational education to support Korea’s economic development.
To build up Korea’s technical capacity, considerable amount of financial and technical assistance went into upgrading Korean secondary and vocational education as well as in institutions of higher learning. A good deal of technical assistance was carried out through US technical cooperation programs under “university contracts” which enlisted the participation of US universities and technical institutions to facilitate the exchange of knowledge and skills. The basic objectives of the technical cooperation program were: expansion of education in fields of engineering, medicine, agriculture, and public or business administration; support of specific services or industries, expansion of research, and training of technical manpower. During 1955-59, a total of 1,421 Koreans studied in the US.
In Korea, the Minnesota Program provided technical and material assistance to SNU during 1954 to 1961, for the Colleges of Agriculture, Engineering, and Medicine of Seoul National University. Later on, technical cooperation was expanded to include the fields of nursing, veterinary, and public administration. Under the ICA-University of Minnesota (U of M), Korean instructors and administrators studied and observed at the U of M. A total of 226 SNU instructors (77 from the College of Medicine) studies in the US at U of M. Also, a total of 59 US experts and advisors (11 advisors for SNU College of Medicine) were dispatched to SNU to act as in-house consultants, to provide assistance the implementation of new systems and methods adopted by Koreans, under the banner of “assist and not displace.” Material assistance was provided to rehabilitate and improve facilities and to provision new equipment.

One particular program under the Minnesota Program focused on the modernization of Korea’s medical education system, a leftover of Japanese colonial rule, to improve the standards of medical training and healthcare. Under the program, war-damaged medical facilities were repaired; new facilities for training healthcare providers were built including nursing and public health schools; and modern medical equipment, systems and practices were introduced at SNU medical college. But more importantly, this program assisted in the training of professors at the SNU medical college.
In 1960, U of M was one of 53 US colleges that participated in the ICA program, which totaled nearly US$ 100 million, with 96 contracts covering 33 countries. To maximize the effectiveness of the program, countries and universities were matched based on various criteria that best suited their conditions. The University benefited from the program which increased the school (Chu, Keun-Won Chu, 80 years of Not Looking Back, 1998, 96p, Lee, Wang-Joon, 2006, p37, recited).
[Table 1-1] Technical Cooperation through US Universities
  US colleges that provided technical assistance
India Columbia, Berea, Illinois, Kansas State, Missouri State, Tennessee, Wisconsin
Pakistan Colorado, Indiana, Southern California, Texas A&M, Washington State
Korea George Peabody, Minnesota, Washington State, Indiana, Syracuse, Oregon
Indonesia California, Indiana, Kentucky
Japan Massachusetts, Michigan State
Vietnam Georgi, Wyoming
Afghanistan Columbia, Wyoming
China Michigan State, Purdue
Philippines New York State
Srilanka Texas A&M
Thailand Colorado, Hawaii, Indiana
Cambodia Georgi
Iran Brigham Young, Southern California, New York State, Utah State
Turkey Columbia, Georgetown, Nebraska, Spring Garden Institute
Morocco Delado Trade-Tech Institute
Tunisia Delado Trade-Tech Institute
Liberia Cornell, Prairie View A&M
Nigeria Indiana, Michigan State, Ohio, Western Michigan
  US colleges that provided technical assistance
Ethiopia Oklahoma State
Kenya Earham
Rodesia Delado Trade-Tech Institute
Uganda Delado Trade-Tech Institute
Guatemala Kentucky
Costarika Lousiana State
Columbia Tulant
Panama Tennessee
Ecuador Mouston
Peru North Carolina State
Chile Chicago, Cornell, Pittsburgh, Lelond, Stanford
Paraguay Bullalo, Montana Michigan State, Purdue, Southern California
Brazil Johns Hopkins, Michigan, Michigan State, Purdue, Southern California
Austria New York University
Source: ICA. ICA, Technical Cooperation through American Countries, ICA Office of Public Reports, Washington DC 1956. Recited from Lee (2006, p400)
30 Yonsei University, or formerly known as Chosen Christian University, is considered as the oldest established   university in Korea. It was established by early missionaries.
31 A report on Korea’s higher education prepared in 1959 estimated that Korea had about 56 colleges and universities of varying degree located across the country with 88,000 students.

Source: Kim, Jun-Kyung and Kim, KS. 2012. Impact of foreign aid on Korea's development. Seoul: KDI School of Public Policy and Management. 


By end of 1963, the technical assistance activities carried out under US university contracts amounted to more than US $158 with a total of 72 universities performing education and technical assistance under 129 contracts with ICA.32 The number of universities involved and of foreign students enrolled in the programs increased every year since the start of the program. During 1962-1963, nearly 64,000 foreign students were enrolled at US institutions of higher learning. Among the foreign students, 4,619 foreign students were in fields related to medicine and public health. Nearly 40% of the students were self supported, while 24% were supported by US universities, 15% by private organizations, 10% by US aid and 6% by foreign governments. More than 1,000 foreign medical scholars or faculty studied in the US during 1962-1963, many funded by US aid. Based on percentages, 38% of all foreign medical graduates working in the US came from Asia and Far East.33
[Table 1-2] Summary of Technical Cooperation Programs under US University Contracts
  December 1961 March 1964
Number of US University Contracts 186 252
Number of US Universities involved 87 119
Number of Contracts involving overseas activity 101 131
Number of US Universities in overseas projects 58 71
Number of US Universities with training contracts 46 72
Funding of University Contracts (millions) US $ 121 US $ 177
Source: Dodge (1971)
[Table 1-3] Korean Medical, Dental, and Pharmacy Colleges in 1952

  Location Enrollment as of Oct.
Permanent Korean War Male Female
Seoul National University
Medical College
Seoul Busan 444  
Seoul National University
Dental College
Seoul Busan 280  
Seoul National University
Pharmacy College
Seoul Busan 294  
Chunnam University
Medical College (ChollaNamdo)
Kwangju Kwangju 530  
Kyungpuk University
Medical College (Kyongsang)
Taegu Taegu 397  
Ewha Women’s University Seoul Busan   411
Severance Medical College
(Later Yonsei University)
Seoul Seoul 79  
Seoul Women’s Medical College Seoul Busan
Source: Dodge (1971)
32 Pg 1 of AID and Universities: Report to the Administrator of US AID. By John W. Gardner
33 Pg 8 of US AID for International Development, The Universities and Medical Education in Developing Countries.

Source: Kim, Jun-Kyung and Kim, KS. 2012. Impact of foreign aid on Korea's development. Seoul: KDI School of Public Policy and Management. 


 Korean medical education was mostly based on the “systems and practices used in Japan, as modified from those used in Germany.”34 During the Korean War, the college was forced to evacuate to Busan, scattering students and teaching staff all over the country. Only the medical school in Kwangju could operate during the war in its original location. The other colleges had to relocate to temporary accommodations. Many staff members volunteered for military service as medical officers. The school stopped operations for nearly one year and reopened in 1951. Some medical staff and students were abducted when North Korea retreated, some managed to come back but some went missing. During the war, the university’s buildings were used by US Armed Forces from 1952 until 1954.
Timeline of SNU College of Medicine:
1899 Founded as Kwang Jae Won by government under King Kojong
1907 Reinstituted as Dai Han Hospital
1910 Renamed as Chosun Colonial Government Hospital by Japanese
1926 Keijo (Seoul) Imperial University, hospital became part of Imperial University. It was one of six universities in the entire Japanese imperial empire by 1945.
1927 “Seoul Junior Medical College” was reformed as four year school and linked to Keijo Imperial University College of Medicine.
1945 Seoul National University College of Medicine was organized under Act 102 of US Military Government. It formed one of 12 colleges of SNU. 
After the Korean War, nearly 75% of the already small number of 99 hospitals were destroyed or of communism were widespread. The SNU Medical School had a small clinical hospital and a staff that damaged, and estimated 5 million Koreans were without modern healthcare.35 The WHO/UNKRA Health Planning Mission assessed Korea’s healthcare and concluded: “highest national priority should be given to the immediate and full restoration of educational activities.” Moreover, medical doctors were in great demand by the military as Korea had to keep wartime readiness after the Korean War. Despite the signing of the armistice which effectively was a ceasefire, the years after the Korean War was a period of great uncertainty and instability. The fear of another war and the threat included 20 professors, many of whom were on leave serving in the military at the time. This put additional pressure on SNU Medical College to maintain a high enrollment rate.

The Korean War had left the institutions of Korean higher education war-shattered.36 Many of the schools suffered massive damages to their facilities, a lack of trained and qualified instructors, and a shortage of books, labs, and supplies. To rebuild and upgrade Korea’s higher education, the Korean government sought the assistance of the US in 1953. One of the first proposals was presented by Dr. L. George Paik, who was the former Minister of Education and eventual President of Yonsei University. The proposal intended to assist Korea’s four major private universities including Ewha, Korea University, Severance Medical College, and Yonsei University, with US assistance being used to secure affiliations with US universities. But the proposal was significantly changed by the Korean government, which gave priority to SNU. It was hoped that SNU would develop into “a national center for high level leadership training for Korea” where the benefits accumulated by SNU would be passed on to other institutions. By then much of US assistance in higher education went into classroom construction. However, the US and Korea realized that it was necessary to rebuild and upgrade Korean medical education and medical sector to support rehabilitation and development. As such, the FOA secured one single master contract with the University of Minnesota to upgrade SNU in the fields of agriculture, engineering, and medicine.37
The technical cooperation program included three main activities: the education and training of Koreans in Minnesota, a counterpart program, and material assistance. So the objective of the program was to send Korean instructors to the US to receive training at U of M and then have US advisors sent to Korea to serve as “in house consultants” to assist in the institution of American based organization, teaching methods, and medical systems and practices. This was at the heart of the technical assistance cooperative project between SNU and U of M under the ICA.
To ensure administrative simplicity, a master contract was signed between U of M and ICA, which provided administrative and financial support. The contract included the scope of technical activities to be performed by U of M such as 1) design and implementation of the program was to be carried by U of M, 2) a course program for the deans of SNU was to be included, 3) the staff and consultants to work in Korea, 4) U of M assessed the buildings and equipments needs in Korea in consultation with SNU officials, 5) U of M prepared a report with detailed findings and recommendations on the rehabilitation of SNU for submission to ICA. The contract also specified that U of M would prepare and submit to FOA semi-annual progress report and final report after the completion of the activities.
34 From Final Report of Observations and Recommendations Concerning the College of Medicine SNU by James H. Matthews, M.D. Advisor in 1958.
35 From “Background of US Economic Aid to Korea
36 After the end of World War II in 1945, many South Korean colleges came under the heavy influence of socialism. As a response, many of these small colleges in Seoul were consolidated by the US Military Government under the newly established Seoul National University in 1946. The president of the new school, Harry B. Ansted, a former US Navy captain, was appointed in August 1946 until October 1947. There were demonstrations by the students when consolidation plan was announced. It was thought that US influence on the intellectual elite would trickle down to other college and students.
37 The three fields limited the choice of US universities, which was narrowed down to Minnesota and Ohio State. Minnesota was believed to have been selected partly due to the relationship between Minnesota and Harold Stassen, the FOA head, who was formerly the Governor of Minnesota, and partly due to the fact that Minnesota’s engineering school also offered marine engineering which Ohio State did not.

Source: Kim, Jun-Kyung and Kim, KS. 2012. Impact of foreign aid on Korea's development. Seoul: KDI School of Public Policy and Management.


 A key part of the cooperation was making sure that the leadership of the SNU were educated and trained, basically to raise awareness amongst deans, so that they would be in line and supportive of the long term goal of upgrading Korean medical education. This was to make sure that the senior management would become agents of change instead of obstacles to reform and progress. The first dean of the Medical College was sent to U of M to receive an intensive 6-month program to study and observe the medical curriculum and facilities, and to engage in discussions with U of M faculty (Lee, Wang-Joon, 2006, p39). This showed the commitment and focus put on changing the mindset of the top leadership at SNU. This contract effectively gave U of M “substantial portion” of the design and implementation of the technical assistance program on behalf of the US aid agency. Indeed, U of M secured the contract on the condition that the ICA and Korean government would not interfere at all on education related decisions, according to Lee Wang-Joon (2006, p40).
Nearly all or 80% of the SNU medical staff had been sent to the US for training in the US for a period of three months to four years so that they could return to Korea to upgrade the medical education system, based on American standards. Basically, two groups of Korean instructors and administrators were sent to US. <Table 3-7> shows the composition of SNU faculties that participated in either short-term consultation or long-term degree program. The first group (short-term consultation program) which largely consisted of senior faculty that held administrative positions at SNU was supposed to be for 6-12 months to study and observe US medical system and practices. The second group (long-term degree program) consisted younger faculty who were expected to continue teaching and take up leadership position in the future after returning from studying in the US. As such, the training period for younger faculty was much more intensive and longer between one and three years. However, many of the younger faculties ended up staying longer for up to four years as seen in <Table 3-8>. As noted before, a key provision in the scope of the technical activities was sending selected junior staffs or faculties at SNU to U of M for long-term degree program. As seen in <Table 3-9>, large number of junior faculties participated in long-term degree programs, many of whom were sent in 1955 and 1959. This is quite remarkable considering the patriarchical culture and seniority based culture in Korea where junior faculty was subordinate to senior faculty. Indeed, the technical program put focus on investing in junior faculty, the future of Korea’s higher education.
Since the senior faculty was also trained to recognize the importance of instituting new methods and practices, they were supportive of the junior faculty and did not stand in the way of introducing new teaching methods. According to Lee Ho Wang (2005), who was one of first junior faculty to participate in the degree program, believed that the program was critical in facilitating the rapid adoption of new curriculum and teaching methods. Teaching materials were directly taken from U of M without translation. Almost all of the curriculum and examinations were based on U of M. Also, SNU faculty studying overseas were assured of their position after returning to Korea, and were obligated to return to their position at least for one year. The program was not limited to U of M; in fact some Koreans were able to study in other institutions and countries, if appropriate to their studies.38 The contract also specified that U of M would prepare and submit to FOA semi-annual progress report and final report after the completion of the activities.
[Table 1-4]| Composition of Technical Cooperation Programs: 1955-1960
  1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 Total
Short-term consultation 11 8 5 3 17 7 51 (66%)
Long-term degree program 12 - - 1 13 - 26 (34%)
Total 23 8 5 4 30 7 77 (100%)
Source: Lee (2006)
[Table 1-5] Composition of Technical Cooperation Programs based on Duration: 1955-1960
  1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 Total
3 months - - - - 2 - 2
6 months 6 3 2 - 6 - 17
1-2 years 4 3 2 3 10 7 29
Over 2 years 13 - 1 1 12 - 27
Total 23 8 5 4 30 7 77
Source: Lee (2006)
[Table 1-6] Composition of Technical Cooperation Programs based on Seniority: 1955-1960
  1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 Total
Professor 7 3 1 2 4 - 19
Associate Professor 2 3 3 - 3 - 11
Assistant Professor 4 1 1 - 1 - 7
Lecturers/assistants 8 - - 1 18 6 33
Others - 1 - 1 4 1 7
Total 23 8 5 4 30 7 77
Source: Lee (2006)
38 One faculty of SNU Medical College spent time researching at the Pastoral Research Institute in France, while another faculty spent time in State University of New York studying medical law.

Source: Kim, Jun-Kyung and Kim, KS. 2012. Impact of foreign aid on Korea's development. Seoul: KDI School of Public Policy and Management.


Under technical cooperation program, a team of faculty from U of M, and consultants were sent to Korea to assist SNU in improving administration, teaching and curriculum. The US advisors also assisted the SNU faculty and staffs in instituting new organizational and administrative methods, and medical systems and practices. The experts also advised SNU in the selection and uses of books, equipments and supplies in consultation with NU. To coordinate the technical program, a chief advisor which represented the U of M, resided in Korea and was responsible for supervision of the performance of all activities. One of the duties of the chief adviser was to coordinate the procurement of equipment by working with each of the colleges in submitting formal requests that was prepared by the SNU faculty in consultation with overall advisors of each college. Then this proposal was sent to the review committee in U of M before being submitted for final approval by the ICA.
Moreover, an overall advisor was provided by U of M for each dean of the various schools including agriculture, engineering, nursing, and medical, if requested by the SNU. The overall advisor’s duty was to help in facilitating the goals of the technical assistance program. The role of the advisors was to assist the SNU faculty in implementing new American style medical system and practices, but also to monitor the performance and progress. The chief advisor was also in charge of preparing and submitting a progress report to FOA every six month. In addition, a final report was submitted upon completion of the program by each of the advisors.
According to Gault, who was the overall advisor to the Medical School between August 1959 and August 1961, the role of the US advisors was more than providing advisory on teaching and curriculum but also included as a show of support in providing motivation and encouragement to the SNU faculty and the students (Lee, Wang-Joon, 2006, p101). The US advisors a took hands off approach in assisting SNU but they also participated in weekly meetings, delivered the lectures and advised on clinical practices, offered surgical demonstrations and provided individual consultations to SNU staffs. As such the role of advisor was to “assist and not displace” the SNU staffs. US approach of assisting SNU was different from the Scandinavian approach which built a hospital, and provided all the staffs and medical doctors to operate the hospital.
The impact of the technical assistance programs like the Minnesota Program on Korean education and development has been the subject of many studies. Mason et al. (1980) writes: “the most significant, and successful, involvement of American aid in education came with the strengthening of undergraduate faculties and the development of graduate level program in … agriculture, and medicine.” In a comprehensive study of US assistance on Korean education, Dodge (1971) writes: “In higher education as a result of the US efforts, SNU’s Colleges of Agriculture, Medicine, and Engineering were upgraded to the point where the programs there would compare favorably to those of high ranking universities anywhere in the world.” Indeed, the US aid administrators were also in high praise of the programs which were assessed to have significantly supported Korea’s development, judging them to be largely effective and beneficial. For example, nearly 50% of 676 Koreans out of a total of 942 over four years that returned to Korea after receiving training were evaluated as having produced outstanding results while 35% were assessed to be moderate and 15% non-productive.
In a study of US assistance on Korean medical education, Wang-Joon Lee (2006) also concluded that the program’s objectives were achieved successfully in upgrading Korean higher education and the field of medicine in general. The program was hugely successful in modernizing Korea’s medical education system in the sense that newly trained professors helped to introduce modern methods and practices of medical education. Korea’s medical education system underwent standardization based on American style system that replacing the Japanese style system. Korea’s theoretical centered medical education was changed to a clinical and experiment-driven system. Indeed, many of graduates at SNU Medical College were able to pass the US Examination of Certification for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) during the 1960s. The traditional didactic based teaching methods were replaced by clinical, case-based education with more emphasis on practical training such as bed-side practices. New practices in medicine were reformed or established such as anesthesiology, radiology, pathology and so forth. In addition, an internship and resident training system was adopted and medical research capacity was upgraded. Furthermore, a nursing school and public health school were newly established. As the original planners of the program had hoped that SNU could be a beacon of higher learning, modern standards and practices and medical education spread very quickly once the newly trained SNU medical professors returned to Korea. Much of the newly acquired knowledge and methods were disseminated through academic associations, and lecture seminars. Indeed, many of the SNU medical professors went on to hold prominent positions at other medical schools, thus facilitated the spread of knowledge.
But the program, Lee (2006) argues, was in some ways a victim of its own success. The program did not have the desired outcomes in the short-term, as the underdeveloped healthcare system in Korea led to a mass overseas exodus of the newly trained medical graduate students from SNU. The Korean healthcare sector did experience a mass exodus of newly trained medical doctors, educated and qualified to international standards, left Korea to find work overseas, largely to the US. Starting from 1956, the share of SNU medical graduates immigrating to the US gradually increased before peaking in 1964, when nearly 60% of the graduating class taught at SNU immigrated to the US.
To the extent possible, several factors can be attributed to causing this “brain-drain” of Korean medical practitioners. First, most medical doctors sought to operate private practices and clinics. For instance, many doctors at SNU hospital were more interested in working outside of the hospital and were not full time medical staffs. Moreover, western medicine was still a relatively new method of treatment compared to traditional Asian medicine. As such, hospitals were feared by Koreans as “places to die.” Moreover, Korea had not developed enough economically in that it was still relatively poor countries and thus people could not afford medical costs. Hospitals suffered from a low occupancy rate less than 50% in 1960s. Also, Korea’s social safety net was woefully underdeveloped; in that there were no medical insurance programs or measures to help pay for healthcare costs. Another factor that accelerated this mass immigration was a change in US immigration policy. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, the US implemented an immigration policy aimed at attracting newly trained physicians due to a shortage of qualified physicians caused by the expansion of Vietnam War. However, the US would reverse its immigration policy in the late 1970s, which slowed the outflow of physicians from Korea. Around this time, social protection systems were being introduced with the establishment of national health insurance system, scope and size of which grew over time.

Source: Kim, Jun-Kyung and Kim, KS. 2012. Impact of foreign aid on Korea's development. Seoul: KDI School of Public Policy and Management.


 The high rate of migration to the US continued through the early 1970s before falling sharply by the mid-1970s. Indeed, SNU Medical College was not the only institution that experienced high migration of graduating students overseas, as seen in the number students that went to overseas as seen below.39

[Table 1-7] Demography of SNU Medical College Graduates during 1956-75
  Graduates Overseas Graduates in Korea Deceased Other
US (%) Other
1956 122 27 (22) 2 54 36 3
1957 150 30 (20) 2 85 27 6
1958 139 50 (40) - 67 19 3
1959 149 54 (36) 2 68 23 2
1960 142 54 (38) 4 58 18 8
1961 135 57 (42) 1 58 15 4
1962 123 56 (45) 1 53 11 2
1963 131 74 (56) - 44 11 2
1964 128 74 (58) 1 41 11 1
1965 113 58 (51) - 48 7 -
1966 117 51 (51) - 55 9 2
1967 124 60 (48) - 52 10 2
1968 100 52 (52) 2 43 3 -
1969 103 47 (45) - 50 6 -
1970 81 39 (48) - 40 1 1
1971 107 51 (47) - 53 1 2
  Graduates Overseas Graduates in Korea Deceased Other
US (%) Other
1972 99 37 (37) - 57 3 2
1973 97 21 (22) - 71 3 2
1974 97 16 (16) - 79 1 1
1975 109 15 (14) - 89 4 1
Total 2,366 923 (Ave: 39) 15 1,166 219 44
Source: Lee (2006, p188)
[Table 1-8] Diaspora of Korean Medical Physicians (As of Nov. 15, 1974)
Country Number Medical School Number
West Germany
Seoul National University
Yonsei University
Catholic University
Korea University
Ewha University
Chonnam University
Kyungbuk University
Pusan University
Total 3,135   3,135
Note: The data was prepared by Berglund based on the alumni information from medical schools.
Source: Lee (2006, p189)
Finally, a review of qualitative reports prepared by implementers and participants of the Minnesota Program also show that many assessed that the program generally had a positive impact on Korean higher education and medical sector. An American nurse that acted as an advisor to the nurses in the SNU College of Medicine and hospital observed that the attitude of doctors changed after studying in the US, the status of nurses was improving along with status of women, and doctors recognized that is was more efficient for nurses to manage the hospital wards.40 Moreover, the opportunity for medical staff to study and observe nurses in the US had greater impact on changing the status of nurses as a profession, as nurses were considered low status and servants of doctors in Korea at the time.

The individual evaluations of the Korean professors who studied at U of M by the faculty of U of M who taught and acted as their academic advisors in most part concluded that the Korean students studying in the US would have benefited from being in class and learning by observing, though their participation was very limited. Overall, the faculty advised that most students indicated interest and some level of aptitude, or understanding of their subject and studies. Most students regularly attended classes and on-site industrial tours. However, the U of M faculty stressed that it would be impossible to make any objective or even formal evaluation of student performance, since only a handful actually took exams and wrote a thesis, thereby receiving full credit and a degree. The faculty members noted that most of the Korean students did not complete a thesis let alone a degree. In fact, many Koreans did not participate in class discussions nor take exams to qualify for grades instead choose to audit the classes, for which the advisors attributed to cultural and language differences. In particular, the evaluations cited the weak English proficiency of Korean students as a serious problem, resulting in a “language barrier.” This made productive discussions with students difficult and providing any objective evaluation of how much students benefited impossible. Cultural differences between faculty and students were also often cited as possible barriers to learning.
39 This pattern of brain drain was also found in other field of study not associated with Minnesota Project, as many students that had gone to the US and received Ph.Ds did not return to Korea. Nearly 85-90% of Koreans who obtained Ph.D.s in science and engineering in the US did not return to Korea.
40 A technical High School of Nursing was established at SNU in 1945. Then a college level nursing program was instituted at SNU College of Medicine in 1959. There were a total of 24 nursing schools, 9 in Seoul, three of which were college level, located at SNU, Ewha, and Yonsei.

Source: Kim, Jun-Kyung and Kim, KS. 2012. Impact of foreign aid on Korea's development. Seoul: KDI School of Public Policy and Management.
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